Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Notes Resources and Development

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Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Notes Resources and development

In the Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Notes Resources and Development, We will be learning about Resources, Classification of Resources, Development of Resources, Resource Planning, Land Resources, Land Use Patterns in India, Land Degradation and Conservation measures, Soil as a Resource, Classification of Soils, Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation, etc.

Resource: –

Everything available in our environment that can be used to satisfy our needs, which is technologically accessible, economically feasible, and culturally acceptable can be termed as a resource.


These resources can be classified in the following ways: –

(a) On the basis of origin: –

( I ) Biotic Resources

( II ) Abiotic Resources

(b) On the basis of exhaustibility: –

( I ) Renewable resources

( II ) Non-Renewable Resources

(c) On the basis of ownership: –

( I ) Individual resources

( II ) Community-Owned Resources

( III ) National Resources

( IV ) International resources

(d) On the basis of the status of development: –

( I ) potential Resources

( II ) developed Resources

( III ) stock

( IV ) reserves

Types of Resources: –

Resources can be classified on the basis of origin, exhaustibility, ownership, and the status of development.

On the basis of origin: – resources are of two types, viz., biotic resources and abiotic resources.

Biotic resources: – Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere and have life, for Example: – human beings, livestock, flora and fauna, fisheries, etc.

Abiotic resources: – Abiotic resources are composed of non-living things. Example: – rocks and metals.

On the basis of exhaustibility: – resources are renewable and non-renewable.

Renewable resources: – The Resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical, or mechanical processes are known as renewable resources. Example: – Solar and Wind

Non-Renewable Resources: – These resources take millions of years their formation. Some resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use.

On the basis of ownership: – resources are individual, community-owned, national, and international resources.

Individual resources: – Resources are owned Privately by individuals known as Individuals resources. Example: – plantation, pasture land, farmland, etc.

Community Owned Resources: – There are resources that are accessible to all members of the community known as Community owned resources. Examples: – grazing grounds, burial grounds, etc.

National Resources: – All the resources within the political boundaries and oceanic area are known as National Resources. Examples: – canals, roadways, railways, etc.

International resources: – The International Resources Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aims to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.

On the basis of the status of development: – resources are potential, developed, stocks and reserves.

Potential resources: – known as Potential Resources which are found in a region but have not been utilized Resources.

Developed resources: – Resources that are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilization known as Developed Resources. Example: – coal and petroleum.

Stock: – Materials in the appropriate technology to the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have access to these are known as Stock. Example: – hydrogen in water.

Reserve: – Reserve the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical ‘know-how’ but their use has not been started. Example: – river water.

Development of Resources: –

  • Resources are vital for human survival and for maintaining the quality of life. But over utilization of resources has led to serious global problems like global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution, and land degradation.
  • An equal distribution of resources, therefore, is essential for sustained quality of life and global peace. This can be achieved through sustainable development and resource planning.

Sustainable Development: –

  • Sustainable economic development means ‘development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present, should not compromise with the needs of future generations.

Rio De Janeiro Summit, 1992: –

  • The first International Earth Summit was held in Rio De Janeiro in June 1992.
  • The summit addressed the problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development.
  • Leaders of more than 100 countries signed the Declaration on Global Climate Change and Biological Diversity. They also adopted Global Forest Principles and Agenda 21.

Agenda 21 (on the base of Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Notes)

  • It is a declaration signed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
  • It aims to combat environmental damage, poverty, and disease through global cooperation, etc. It also aims that every local government should draw its own local Agenda-21.

Resource Planning: –

  • Planning is the widely accepted strategy for the judicious use of resources.
  • Resource planning is essential for sustainable development in India because some regions are rich in one resource but are deficient in other resources.
  • There are some regions that can be considered self-sufficient in terms of the availability of resources and there are some regions that have acute shortages of vital resources. Example: – Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh.

Resource Planning in India: –

The complex process of resource planning in India is divided into three stages, Example: – 

  • Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping, and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
  • Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional setup for implementing resource development plans.
  • Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans. 

India has made concerted efforts for achieving the goals of resource planning right from the First Five-Year Plan launched after Independence.

Resources and Colonisation: –

  • The rich natural resources of colonies were the main attractions for foreign invaders.
  • Technological development of the colonizing countries helped them to exploit the resources of the colonized regions.
  • India has experienced colonization and the availability of resources as well as the technology and quality of human resources are needed for proper development.

Conservation of Resources: –

  • Resources are vital for any developmental activity. To overcome the problems of irrational consumption and over-utilization of resources, resource conservation at various levels is important.
  • At the international level, resource conservation was advocated in 1968 at the Club of Rome and in 1987, the Brundtland Commission Report extensively mentioned the necessity of resources.

Land Resources: –

  • The land is a very important natural resource. It is limited, so, it needs to be used with careful planning.

Land Resources in India: –

  • India’s geographical area comprises a variety of relief features i.e. 43 percent plain land area for agriculture and industries, 27 percent plateau which source of minerals, fossil fuels, and forest, and 30 percent of mountains.

Land Utilisation: –

The geographical process in which a piece of land is used for various economical purposes

Forests: –

  • A Large area of land covered with trees.

Land not available for Cultivation: –

  • Barren and wasteland
  • Land put to non-agricultural uses i.e. buildings, roads, Industries

Uncultivated Other Land: –

  • Permanent pastures and grazing land Land
  • under miscellaneous tree crops groves
  • culturally wasteland (left uncultivated for mother years)

Fallow Lands: –

  • Current fallow is left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year.
  • Other than the current fallow (left uncultivated for the past 1-5 agricultural years)

Net Sown area: –

  • It is the total area sown with crops and orchards. It represents an area in which total crops are grown only once a year.

Land Use Pattern in India: –

  • The use of land is determined by physical factors like climate, soil type, topography, etc as well as human factors like population density, technological capability, and culture and traditions, etc.
  • The total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq. km. Out of this, the land under permanent pasture has decreased.
  • In India, land use data is available for only 93 percent of the total area.

Major changes place in land use pattern in India: –

  • Between 1960-61 and 2014-2015 major changes took place in land use patterns in India. For example:
  • Most of the other than current fallow lands are of poor quality and their cost of cultivation is very high. The pattern of the net sown area varies greatly from one state to another.
  • Forest area in India is far lower than the desired 33% of the geographical area.
  • Waste land includes rocky, arid, and desert areas and land put to other non-agricultural uses include settlements, roads, railways, industry, etc.

Land Degradation and Conservation Measures: –

  • It is a common problem associated with land resources which is accelerated today because of human activities like deforestation, overgrazing and mining.
  • Natural factors like water and wind cause erosion of topsoil.
  • Mineral processing is also responsible for land degradation.

Measures to control land degradation:

Measures to reduce land degradation are

  • Afforestation ,
  • Proper management of grazing ,
  • Control on Mining ,
  • Shelter Belts ,
  • proper treatment of industrial water,
  • stabilisation of sand dunes etc.

Soil: –

  • Soil is a living system that supports different types of living organisms.

Formation of soil: –

  • It takes millions of years to form soil up to a few an in-depth relief, parent rock or bedrock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.

Classification of Soil: –

There are various types of soils found in India such as

  • Alluvial soil,
  • Black soil,
  • Red and Yellow soils,
  • Laterite soil,
  • Arid soil,
  • Forest and Mountain soils.

Alluvial Soil: –

  • Alluvial soil is the most widespread soil in India, which has been deposited by three important Himalayan river systems i.e. the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra.
  • These soils contain an adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
  • Consists of various amounts of sand, silt, and clay.
  • According to the age of divided into – Khadar and Bangar.
  • Ideal for the growth of Sugarcane, Paddy, Wheat, and cereal, and pulse crops.

Black Soils: –

  • Black soil is also known as black cotton soil or regur soil.
  • The factors that are important for the formation of black soil are climatic conditions along with parent rock material.
  • It is found in the Deccan trap (Basalt) region and is made up of lava flows.
  • Rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.
  • Cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattishgarh.

Red and Yellow Soils: –

  • It is red in color due to the diffusion of iron particles into crystalline and metamorphic rocks in low rainfall areas of the Deccan plateau (Eastern and Southern parts).
  • It is found in parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Southern parts of the Middle Ganga Plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.

Laterite Soils: –

  • The word laterite has been derived from the Latin word later which means brick. Laterite soil develops in tropical and sub-tropical climates with alternative wet and dry seasons.
  • It is found mostly in Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, Odisha, some parts of West Bengal and the North-East regions.

Arid Soils: –

  • Range from red to brown in colour. Sandy in texture and saline in nature.
  • Arid Soil is found in dry areas. In some areas, common salt is obtained in this soil due to the evaporation of water.
  • It can be useful for cultivation only with suitable irrigation methods as in case of Western Rajasthan.

Forest Soils: –

  • Forest soil is found in hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rainforests are available.
  • It is found in lower parts of valleys, particularly on the river terraces.

Soil erosion: –

  • Removal of the upper layer of soil from one place to another by any natural agent or human activity is called soil erosion.

Causes of Soil erosion: –

  • Deforestation
  • Over Grazing
  • Construction and mining
  • Natural forces like wind, Glacier, water
  • Wrong way of ploughing
  • Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land

Solutions of Soil erosion: –

  • Ploughing along the contour lines
  • steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces
  • Large fields can be divided into strips, strips of grass are grow between the crops
  • Planting lines of trees to create shelter
  • Afforestation
  • controlled grazing

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